> 注意:——如果你不喜欢sudo,可以查看[非root用户使用](https://github.com/widuu/chinese_docker/blob/master/examples/installation/binaries.md) ### 在Docker中安装PostgreSQL 如果Docker Hub中没有你需要的Docker镜像,你可以创建自己的镜像,开始先创建一个`Dockerfile`: > 注意:这个PostgreSQL仅设置用途。请参阅PostgreSQL文档来调整这些设置,以便它是安全的。 ~~~ # # example Dockerfile for http://docs.docker.com/examples/postgresql_service/ # FROM ubuntu MAINTAINER SvenDowideit@docker.com # Add the PostgreSQL PGP key to verify their Debian packages. # It should be the same key as https://www.postgresql.org/media/keys/ACCC4CF8.asc RUN apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys B97B0AFCAA1A47F044F244A07FCC7D46ACCC4CF8 # Add PostgreSQL's repository. It contains the most recent stable release # of PostgreSQL, ``9.3``. RUN echo "deb http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ precise-pgdg main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pgdg.list # Update the Ubuntu and PostgreSQL repository indexes RUN apt-get update # Install ``python-software-properties``, ``software-properties-common`` and PostgreSQL 9.3 # There are some warnings (in red) that show up during the build. You can hide # them by prefixing each apt-get statement with DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive RUN apt-get -y -q install python-software-properties software-properties-common RUN apt-get -y -q install postgresql-9.3 postgresql-client-9.3 postgresql-contrib-9.3 # Note: The official Debian and Ubuntu images automatically ``apt-get clean`` # after each ``apt-get`` # Run the rest of the commands as the ``postgres`` user created by the ``postgres-9.3`` package when it was ``apt-get installed`` USER postgres # Create a PostgreSQL role named ``docker`` with ``docker`` as the password and # then create a database `docker` owned by the ``docker`` role. # Note: here we use ``&&\`` to run commands one after the other - the ``\`` # allows the RUN command to span multiple lines. RUN /etc/init.d/postgresql start &&\ psql --command "CREATE USER docker WITH SUPERUSER PASSWORD 'docker';" &&\ createdb -O docker docker # Adjust PostgreSQL configuration so that remote connections to the # database are possible. RUN echo "host all all 0.0.0.0/0 md5" >> /etc/postgresql/9.3/main/pg_hba.conf # And add ``listen_addresses`` to ``/etc/postgresql/9.3/main/postgresql.conf`` RUN echo "listen_addresses='*'" >> /etc/postgresql/9.3/main/postgresql.conf # Expose the PostgreSQL port EXPOSE 5432 # Add VOLUMEs to allow backup of config, logs and databases VOLUME ["/etc/postgresql", "/var/log/postgresql", "/var/lib/postgresql"] # Set the default command to run when starting the container CMD ["/usr/lib/postgresql/9.3/bin/postgres", "-D", "/var/lib/postgresql/9.3/main", "-c", "config_file=/etc/postgresql/9.3/main/postgresql.conf"] ~~~ 使用Dockerfile构建镜像并且指定名称 ~~~ $ sudo docker build -t eg_postgresql . ~~~ 并且运行PostgreSQL服务容器 ~~~ $ sudo docker run --rm -P --name pg_test eg_postgresql ~~~ 有2种方法可以连接到PostgreSQL服务器。我们可以使用链接容器,或者我们可以从我们的主机(或网络)访问它。 > 注:`--rm`删除容器,当容器存在时成功。 ### [](https://github.com/widuu/chinese_docker/blob/master/examples/postgresql_service.md#使用容器连接)使用容器连接 在客户端`docker run`中直接使用`-link remote_name:local_alias`使容器连接到另一个容器端口。 ~~~ $ sudo docker run --rm -t -i --link pg_test:pg eg_postgresql bash postgres@7ef98b1b7243:/$ psql -h $PG_PORT_5432_TCP_ADDR -p $PG_PORT_5432_TCP_PORT -d docker -U docker --password ~~~ ### 连接到你的主机系统 假设你有安装postgresql客户端,您可以使用主机端口映射测试。您需要使用`docker ps`找出映射到本地主机端口: ~~~ $ docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES 5e24362f27f6 eg_postgresql:latest /usr/lib/postgresql/ About an hour ago Up About an hour 0.0.0.0:49153->5432/tcp pg_test $ psql -h localhost -p 49153 -d docker -U docker --password ~~~ ### 测试数据 一旦你已经通过身份验证,并且有`docker =#`提示,您可以创建一个表并填充它。 ~~~ psql (9.3.1) Type "help" for help. $ docker=# CREATE TABLE cities ( docker(# name varchar(80), docker(# location point docker(# ); CREATE TABLE $ docker=# INSERT INTO cities VALUES ('San Francisco', '(-194.0, 53.0)'); INSERT 0 1 $ docker=# select * from cities; name | location ---------------+----------- San Francisco | (-194,53) (1 row) ~~~ ### 使用容器卷 您可以使用PostgreSQL卷检查定义日志文件、备份配置和数据: ~~~ $ docker run --rm --volumes-from pg_test -t -i busybox sh / # ls bin etc lib linuxrc mnt proc run sys usr dev home lib64 media opt root sbin tmp var / # ls /etc/postgresql/9.3/main/ environment pg_hba.conf postgresql.conf pg_ctl.conf pg_ident.conf start.conf /tmp # ls /var/log ldconfig postgresql ~~~