[对称加密](%E5%AF%B9%E7%A7%B0%E5%8A%A0%E5%AF%86.md) [非对称加密](%E9%9D%9E%E5%AF%B9%E7%A7%B0%E5%8A%A0%E5%AF%86.md) [单向散列函数](%E5%8D%95%E5%90%91%E6%95%A3%E5%88%97%E5%87%BD%E6%95%B0.md) [消息认证](%E6%B6%88%E6%81%AF%E8%AE%A4%E8%AF%81.md) [数字签名](%E6%95%B0%E5%AD%97%E7%AD%BE%E5%90%8D.md)