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> 原文链接[Zabbix分区表](https://www.zabbix.org/wiki/Docs/howto/mysql_partition "Zabbix分区表") > #### TokuDB可以大大缓解插入性能的瓶颈,并且存储空间大大减少,结合分区表效果更佳 #### Zabbix大表有哪些 | 表名 |大小 | | :------------: | :------------: | | history | | | history_log | | | history_str | | | history_text || | history_uint | | | trends | | | trends_uint | || #### 分表前提 - 按时间范围分表(字段clock,字段无索引) - MySQL分区表要求范围字段是唯一索引或主键索引,或者是其中一部分,需要修改前核实clock是否在索引中 #### 创建4个存储过程 存储过程1 ```shell DELIMITER $$ CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_create`(SCHEMANAME varchar(64), TABLENAME varchar(64), PARTITIONNAME varchar(64), CLOCK int) BEGIN /* SCHEMANAME = The DB schema in which to make changes TABLENAME = The table with partitions to potentially delete PARTITIONNAME = The name of the partition to create */ /* Verify that the partition does not already exist */ DECLARE RETROWS INT; SELECT COUNT(1) INTO RETROWS FROM information_schema.partitions WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND table_name = TABLENAME AND partition_description >= CLOCK; IF RETROWS = 0 THEN /* 1. Print a message indicating that a partition was created. 2. Create the SQL to create the partition. 3. Execute the SQL from #2. */ SELECT CONCAT( "partition_create(", SCHEMANAME, ",", TABLENAME, ",", PARTITIONNAME, ",", CLOCK, ")" ) AS msg; SET @sql = CONCAT( 'ALTER TABLE ', SCHEMANAME, '.', TABLENAME, ' ADD PARTITION (PARTITION ', PARTITIONNAME, ' VALUES LESS THAN (', CLOCK, '));' ); PREPARE STMT FROM @sql; EXECUTE STMT; DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT; END IF; END$$ DELIMITER ; ``` 存储过程2 ``` DELIMITER $$ CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_drop`(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE BIGINT) BEGIN /* SCHEMANAME = The DB schema in which to make changes TABLENAME = The table with partitions to potentially delete DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE = Delete any partitions with names that are dates older than this one (yyyy-mm-dd) */ DECLARE done INT DEFAULT FALSE; DECLARE drop_part_name VARCHAR(16); /* Get a list of all the partitions that are older than the date in DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE. All partitions are prefixed with a "p", so use SUBSTRING TO get rid of that character. */ DECLARE myCursor CURSOR FOR SELECT partition_name FROM information_schema.partitions WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND table_name = TABLENAME AND CAST(SUBSTRING(partition_name FROM 2) AS UNSIGNED) < DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE; DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET done = TRUE; /* Create the basics for when we need to drop the partition. Also, create @drop_partitions to hold a comma-delimited list of all partitions that should be deleted. */ SET @alter_header = CONCAT("ALTER TABLE ", SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME, " DROP PARTITION "); SET @drop_partitions = ""; /* Start looping through all the partitions that are too old. */ OPEN myCursor; read_loop: LOOP FETCH myCursor INTO drop_part_name; IF done THEN LEAVE read_loop; END IF; SET @drop_partitions = IF(@drop_partitions = "", drop_part_name, CONCAT(@drop_partitions, ",", drop_part_name)); END LOOP; IF @drop_partitions != "" THEN /* 1. Build the SQL to drop all the necessary partitions. 2. Run the SQL to drop the partitions. 3. Print out the table partitions that were deleted. */ SET @full_sql = CONCAT(@alter_header, @drop_partitions, ";"); PREPARE STMT FROM @full_sql; EXECUTE STMT; DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT; SELECT CONCAT(SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME) AS `table`, @drop_partitions AS `partitions_deleted`; ELSE /* No partitions are being deleted, so print out "N/A" (Not applicable) to indicate that no changes were made. */ SELECT CONCAT(SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME) AS `table`, "N/A" AS `partitions_deleted`; END IF; END$$ DELIMITER ; ``` 存储过程3 ``` DELIMITER $$ CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_maintenance`(SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR(32), TABLE_NAME VARCHAR(32), KEEP_DATA_DAYS INT, HOURLY_INTERVAL INT, CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS INT) BEGIN DECLARE OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE VARCHAR(16); DECLARE PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16); DECLARE OLD_PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16); DECLARE LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP INT; DECLARE CUR_TIME INT; CALL partition_verify(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, HOURLY_INTERVAL); SET CUR_TIME = UNIX_TIMESTAMP(DATE_FORMAT(NOW(), '%Y-%m-%d 00:00:00')); SET @__interval = 1; create_loop: LOOP IF @__interval > CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS THEN LEAVE create_loop; END IF; SET LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP = CUR_TIME + (HOURLY_INTERVAL * @__interval * 3600); SET PARTITION_NAME = FROM_UNIXTIME(CUR_TIME + HOURLY_INTERVAL * (@__interval - 1) * 3600, 'p%Y%m%d%H00'); IF(PARTITION_NAME != OLD_PARTITION_NAME) THEN CALL partition_create(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, PARTITION_NAME, LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP); END IF; SET @__interval=@__interval+1; SET OLD_PARTITION_NAME = PARTITION_NAME; END LOOP; SET OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE=DATE_FORMAT(DATE_SUB(NOW(), INTERVAL KEEP_DATA_DAYS DAY), '%Y%m%d0000'); CALL partition_drop(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE); END$$ DELIMITER ; ``` 存储过程4 ``` DELIMITER $$ CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_verify`(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), HOURLYINTERVAL INT(11)) BEGIN DECLARE PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16); DECLARE RETROWS INT(11); DECLARE FUTURE_TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP; /* * Check if any partitions exist for the given SCHEMANAME.TABLENAME. */ SELECT COUNT(1) INTO RETROWS FROM information_schema.partitions WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND table_name = TABLENAME AND partition_name IS NULL; /* * If partitions do not exist, go ahead and partition the table */ IF RETROWS = 1 THEN /* * Take the current date at 00:00:00 and add HOURLYINTERVAL to it. This is the timestamp below which we will store values. * We begin partitioning based on the beginning of a day. This is because we don't want to generate a random partition * that won't necessarily fall in line with the desired partition naming (ie: if the hour interval is 24 hours, we could * end up creating a partition now named "p201403270600" when all other partitions will be like "p201403280000"). */ SET FUTURE_TIMESTAMP = TIMESTAMPADD(HOUR, HOURLYINTERVAL, CONCAT(CURDATE(), " ", '00:00:00')); SET PARTITION_NAME = DATE_FORMAT(CURDATE(), 'p%Y%m%d%H00'); -- Create the partitioning query SET @__PARTITION_SQL = CONCAT("ALTER TABLE ", SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME, " PARTITION BY RANGE(`clock`)"); SET @__PARTITION_SQL = CONCAT(@__PARTITION_SQL, "(PARTITION ", PARTITION_NAME, " VALUES LESS THAN (", UNIX_TIMESTAMP(FUTURE_TIMESTAMP), "));"); -- Run the partitioning query PREPARE STMT FROM @__PARTITION_SQL; EXECUTE STMT; DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT; END IF; END$$ DELIMITER ; ``` #### 存储过程中有四个功能: partition_create - 这将在给定模式中的给定表上创建一个分区。 partition_drop - 这将删除给定模式中给定表上给定时间戳的分区。 partition_maintenance - 此功能是用户调用的。它负责解析给定的参数,然后根据需要创建/删除分区。 partition_verify - 检查给定模式中给定表上是否启用了分区。如果没有启用,它将创建一个单独的分区。 ##### partition_create ```shell 程序定义:partition_create(SCHEMANAME varchar(64),TABLENAME varchar(64),PARTITIONNAME varchar(64),CLOCK int) 示例:CALL partition_create(“zabbix”,“history”,“p20131216”,1387267200); SCHEMANAME =要在其中进行更改的DB模式 TABLENAME =要在其上创建PARTITIONNAME的表 PARTITIONNAME =要创建的分区的名称 将创建CLOCK = PARTITIONNAME以保存“clock”列值小于此值的值 ``` ##### partition_drop ```shell 过程定义:partition_drop(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64),TABLENAME VARCHAR(64),DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE VARCHAR(64)) 示例:CALL partition_drop(“zabbix”,“history”,“20131216”); SCHEMANAME =要在其中进行更改的DB模式 TABLENAME =要删除PARTITIONNAME的表 DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE =允许的最旧分区日期。所有旧版本的分区将被删除。格式为yyyymmdd。 ``` ##### partition_maintenance ```shell 过程定义:partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR(32),TABLE_NAME VARCHAR(32),KEEP_DATA_DAYS INT,HOURLY_INTERVAL INT,CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS INT) 示例:CALL partition_maintenance('zabbix','history',28,24,14 ); SCHEMA_NAME =要在其中进行更改的DB模式 TABLE_NAME =要进行更改的表 KEEP_DATA_DAYS =要保留的分区的最大天数。所有超过此天数的分区将被删除。 HOURLY_INTERVAL =分区之间的小时间隔。例如,每日分区的值为24,小时分区的值为1。 CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS =提前创建的值的分区数。 ``` ##### partition_verify ```shell 过程定义:partition_verify(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64),TABLENAME VARCHAR(64),HOURLYINTERVAL INT(11)) 示例:CALL partition_verify(“zabbix”,“history”); SCHEMANAME =要在其中进行更改的DB模式 TABLENAME =要检查分区的表 HOURLY_INTERVAL =分区之间的小时间隔。例如,每日分区的值为24,小时分区的值为1。 ``` #### 分区表需求: - 每月一个分区(24小时*31约等于720小时) - 历史保存1年数据(12个月) - 趋势保存2年数据(24个月) - 未来周期12个(未来12个月) 单独语句: ```shell CALL partition_maintenance('zabbix', 'history', 24, 720, 12); CALL partition_maintenance(zabbix, 'trends', 48, 720, 12); ``` 解释:创建24个分区,其中未来月份12个,每个周期存储720小时数据 #### 添加以下存储过程,用来增加新的分区和删除旧的分区 ```shell DELIMITER $$ CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_maintenance_all`(SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR(32)) BEGIN CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history', 24, 720, 12); CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_log', 24, 720, 12); CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_str', 24, 720, 12); CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_text', 24, 720, 12); CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_uint', 24, 720, 12); CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'trends', 48, 720, 12); CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'trends_uint', 48, 720, 12); END$$ DELIMITER ; ``` ##### 执行后,观察分区表状态是否建立 #### 定时调用此存储过程 用来增加新的分区和删除旧的分区,注意定时调用的间隔不能小于每次创建的未来的分区周期,如上情况,**最少12个月调用一次** vim /root/shell/create_partition.sh 加入以下: ```shell /opt/tokudb/mysql/bin/mysql -uzabbix -pzabbix zabbix -e "call partition_maintenance_all('zabbix');" ``` crontab -e 加入以下: ```shell 0 3 * */11 * sh /root/shell/create_partition.sh ``` #### 关闭housekeeper Zabbix 2.2+ ~~~ "Administration" -> "General" History and Trends 的 "Enable internal housekeeping" 去掉 istory and Trends 的 "Override item <trend/history> period" 勾上 ~~~ ![Housekeeping设置](https://box.kancloud.cn/110320d14a11404a9e20731b3d11d6f4_329x291.png) #### 换句话说,实际就是执行了以下语句 ```sql ALTER TABLE `history_str` PARTITION BY RANGE ( clock)( PARTITION p20171 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-01-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20172 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-02-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20173 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-03-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20174 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-04-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20175 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-05-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20176 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-06-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20177 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-07-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20178 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-08-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20179 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-09-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p201710 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-10-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p201711 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-11-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p201712 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2017-12-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20181 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-01-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20182 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-02-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20183 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-03-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20184 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-04-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20185 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-05-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20186 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-06-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20187 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-07-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20188 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-08-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20189 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-09-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p201810 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-10-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p201811 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-11-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p201812 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2018-12-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20191 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-01-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20192 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-02-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20193 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-03-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20194 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-04-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20195 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-05-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20196 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-06-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20197 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-07-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20198 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-08-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20199 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-09-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p201910 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-10-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p201911 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-11-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p201912 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2019-12-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20201 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-01-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20202 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-02-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20203 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-03-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20204 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-04-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20205 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-05-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20206 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-06-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20207 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-07-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20208 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-08-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20209 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-09-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p202010 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-10-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p202011 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-11-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p202012 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2020-12-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20211 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-01-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20212 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-02-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20213 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-03-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20214 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-04-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20215 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-05-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20216 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-06-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20217 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-07-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20218 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-08-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p20219 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-09-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p202110 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-10-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p202111 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-11-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p202112 VALUES LESS THAN (UNIX_TIMESTAMP("2021-12-01 00:00:00")), PARTITION p9999 VALUES LESS VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE); ```